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老挝国家概况

Lao PDR Profile

发表时间:2014-02-23    来源:不详    浏览次数:3160
 
    国名 老挝人民民主共和国(THE LAO PEOPLE’SDEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC)。
    面积 23.68万平方公里。
    人口 638万(2011年)。分为49个民族,分属老泰语族系、孟-高棉语族系、苗-瑶语族系、汉-藏语族系,统称为老挝族。通用老挝语。居民多信奉佛教。华侨华人约3万多人。
    首都 万象(VIENTIANE),人口85万(2012年)。最高平均气温31.7℃,最低平均气温22.6℃。
    简况 位于中南半岛北部的内陆国家,北邻中国,南接柬埔寨,东临越南,西北达缅甸,西南毗连泰国。湄公河在老挝境内干流长度为777.4公里,流经首都万象。属热带、亚热带季风气候,5月至10月为雨季,11月至次年4月为旱季,年平均气温约26℃。老挝全境雨量充沛,近40年来年降水量最少年份为1250毫米,最大年降水量达3750毫米,一般年份降水量约为2000毫米。
    资源 有锡、铅、钾盐、铜、铁、金、石膏、煤、稀土等矿藏。迄今得到开采的有金、铜、煤、钾盐、煤等。水利资源丰富。2012年森林面积约1700万公顷,全国森林覆盖率约50%,产柚木、花梨等名贵木材。
    历史文化 1353年建立澜沧王国南掌),为老挝历史鼎盛时期。佬语中“澜沧”是百万大象之意。因为在历史上,曾有数以万计的大象生活在老挝的土地上,至今仍有大象出没。因此老挝有一雅称“万象之国”。
    上座部佛教在老挝文化中居于主导地位。从语言到寺庙,以及艺术、文化、表演艺术等处处都能找到它的痕迹。老挝宗教以佛教为主,八世纪由老听族僧人引进佛教成为国教,现在老挝有寺院5000座,僧人29000人(有一部分是在寺院读书的沙弥),比丘尼4500人, 老挝最重要寺庙是塔銮寺
    老挝佛弟子是非常虔诚的,几乎每个老挝男人都要入寺庙当沙弥至少几星期,他们也以布施僧人积德,老挝寺庙一度被视为大学。
    旅游景点 古都琅勃拉邦(LangPrabang)是一个精致的古色古香的小山城,位于湄公河畔群山环抱的谷地,距离首都万象大约有500多公里,是老挝现存的最古老的一个城镇,距今已有一千多年的历史。琅勃拉邦全市有679座有保存价值的古老建筑物。1995年12月,琅勃拉邦被联合国教科文组织列入世界历史遗产名录。
 
Country Name: The Lao People’s Democratic Republic
 
Area: 236,800sq.km.
 
Population: 6.38 million(2011). There are 49 nationalities in Lao PDR, Thai language family, Khmer language family, Miao-Yao language family,  Han-Tibetan language family, all of which are called Laos nationalities. Lao is the common language of these nationalities. Most of the Laotian believe in Buddhism. There are about 30,000 ethic Chinese in Lao PDR.
 
Capital: Vientiane, with a population of 850,000(2012). Maximum average temperature: 31.7℃; minimum average temperature: 22.6℃.
 
Profiles: Lao PDR is an inland country located in the north of Indo-China Peninsula, faces China on the north, the south borders on Cambodia, the east side is Vietnam, Myanmar lies in northeast to Lao PDR and the on the southeast side is Thailand. The Mekong River runs through the Lao PDR with the length of 777.4 kilometers, flowing through the Capital Vientiane. Lao PDR has tropical and subtropical monsoon climate, The May to October is the rainy season and November to April next year is the dry season, the mean annual temperature is 26℃. Lao PDR has an abundant rainfall between 1250mm-3750mm (latest 40 years), normally, the annual rainfall of a year can reach about 2000mm.
 
Resources: Lao PDR has rich mineral resources such as tin, plumbum, sylvite, copper, iron, gold, gypsum, coal, rare earth and so forth. Up to now, the mine resources that had been exploited are gold, copper, coal, sylvite and so on. The forest area is about 17million hectares (2012), the forest coverage has reached 50%, some valuable timber such us teak and rosewood.
 
History and Culture: Laos traces its history to the kingdom of Lan Xang (Million Elephants), founded in the 14th century, by a Lao prince Fa Ngum. In history, thousands of elephants had lived on the land of Laos, there still many of them on the land till now, that’s why the Lao PDR has an elegant name The Kingdom of Elephants.
 
The Theravada Buddhism predominates in the culture of Lao PDR. We can see its trace from temples, languages, art, performance and so forth. In the eighth century, Buddhism had been brought into Laos by Lao Theung, them it became the state religion of Lao PDR. Nowadays, there are 5000 temples and 29000 monks (part of who are acolytes), 4500 Buddhist nuns. The most important temple in Lao PDR is Pha That Luang. The Buddhists in Lao PDR are very pious, almost every male Laotian will learn in temples as the acolytes for several weeks, the temples in Laos were once considered as colleges.
 
Tourist attractions: LangPrabang is a delicate ancient town, located in the bank of Mekong River, surrounded by mountains, which is 500 kilometers away from Vientiane. LangPrabang is the oldest ancient town in Lao PDR that had exited over 1000 years. There are 679 temples which are worthy preserving in LangPrabang. In December 1995, Langprabang had been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site.
 
 
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